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Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties


Continuing our series of articles on style sheet properties, this eighth part covers pages, pitch-range, and more. It is excerpted from chapter four of Dynamic HTML: The Definitive Reference, Third Edition, written by Danny Goodman (O'Reilly; ISBN: 0596527403). Copyright 2006 O'Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission from the publisher. Available from booksellers or direct from O'Reilly Media.

Author Info:
By: O'Reilly Media
Rating: 4 stars4 stars4 stars4 stars4 stars / 14
October 18, 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. · Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties
  2. · Page
  3. · Page-break-inside
  4. · Pitch-range
  5. · Quotes

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Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties - Page-break-inside
(Page 3 of 5 )

page-break-inside
IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op 7 CSS 2

Inherited: Yes

Defines whether a printed page break is allowed within an element. Especially useful to define a container of multiple block elements that you want to keep printed on the same page.

CSS Syntax

page-break-inside: breakType

Value                  One of two constant values: avoid | auto .

Initial Value   auto

Example              div.together {page-break-inside: avoid}

Applies To           Block-level elements.

pause
IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op n/a CSS 2

Inherited: No

For aural style sheets, this is a shorthand property for setting both pause-after and pause-before properties in one statement. You may supply one or two values for this property.

CSS Syntax

pause: time | percentage {1,2}

Value

This property accepts one or two values, depending on the values you want to assign to the pause-before and pause-after settings. A single value of the pause property is applied to both pause-before and pause-after. When two values are supplied, the first is assigned to pause-before; the second is assigned to pause-after .

Values for time  are floating-point numbers followed by either the ms (milliseconds) or s (seconds) unit identifier. These settings are therefore absolute durations for pauses. Values for percentage  are inversely proportional to the words-per-minute values of the speech-rate property setting. Because the speech-rate controls how long it takes for a single word (on average), a pause setting of 100% means that a pause has the same duration as a single word; a setting of 50% would be a pause of one-half the duration of speaking a single word.

Initial Value        Depends on the browser.

Applies To           All elements.

pause-after, pause-before
IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op n/a CSS 2

Inherited: No

For aural style sheets, these set the duration of a pause after or before the current element. You can assign both properties to the same element to designate pauses before and after the element is spoken.

CSS Syntax

pause-after: time | percentage
pause-before: time |
percentage

Value

Values for time  are floating-point numbers followed by either the ms (milliseconds) or s (seconds) unit identifier. These settings are therefore absolute durations for pauses. Values for percentage are inversely proportional to the words-per-minute values of the speech-rate property setting. Because the speech-rate controls how long it takes to speak a single word (on average), a pause setting of 100% means that a pause has the same duration as a single word; a setting of 50 % would be a pause of one-half the duration of speaking a single word.

Initial Value         Depends on the browser.

Applies To            All elements.

pitch
IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op n/a CSS 2

Inherited: No

For aural style sheets, this sets the average pitch frequency of the voice used for text-to-speech output.

CSS Syntax

pitch: frequency | frequencyConstant

Value

A frequency  value is any positive floating-point number followed by either the Hz (Hertz) or kHz (kiloHertz) units, as in 500Hz or 5.5kHz. Alternatively, you can use any of the following constant values: x-low | low | medium | high | x-high . As of the CSS2 working draft available for this book, no specific frequency values had yet been assigned to these constants.

 

Initial Value         medium

Applies To             All elements.


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