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Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties

Continuing our series of articles on style sheet properties, this eighth part covers pages, pitch-range, and more. It is excerpted from chapter four of Dynamic HTML: The Definitive Reference, Third Edition, written by Danny Goodman (O'Reilly; ISBN: 0596527403). Copyright © 2006 O'Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission from the publisher. Available from booksellers or direct from O'Reilly Media.

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By: O'Reilly Media
Rating: 4 stars4 stars4 stars4 stars4 stars / 14
October 18, 2007
  1. · Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties
  2. · Page
  3. · Page-break-inside
  4. · Pitch-range
  5. · Quotes

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Padding, Pages, and More Style Sheet Properties - Pitch-range
(Page 4 of 5 )


IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op n/a CSS 2

Inherited: No

For aural style sheets, this sets the range over which the average pitch frequency of a text-to-speech voice varies.

CSS Syntax

pitch-range: number


Any positive number or zero. A value of 0 is a monotone voice; a value of 50 should offer a normal range; values above 50 might sound animated.

Initial Value         50

Applies To            All elements.

IE n/a NN n/a Moz n/a Saf n/a Op n/a CSS 2

Inherited: No

For aural style sheets, this sets the sound-mixing properties of a background sound with a text-to-speech rendering of the elementís content.

CSS Syntax

play-during: uri [mix | repeat] | auto | none


The uri  value is a link to the sound file to be used as background sound (if desired). Optionally, you can specify that the background sound of the parent elementís play-during property is started and mixed with the current elementís background sound. If the length of the background sound is shorter than it takes for the elementís text to be spoken, the repeat constant tells the browser to repeat the sound until the spoken text has finished. A value of auto means that the parent elementís sound continues to play without interruption. And a value of none means that no background sound (from the current or parent element) is heard for this element.

Initial Value         auto

Applies To            All elements.

IE 4 NN 4 Moz all Saf all Op all CSS 2

Inherited: No

Sets whether the element is positionable, and if so, what type of positionable element it is. The two primary types of positionable elements are set with values relative and absolute , with a third type, fixed , applicable to only some browsers. See Chapter 5 for details and examples.

CSS Syntax

position: positionConstant


Browsers and the CSS standard recognize different sets of constant values for this property, as shown in this table.



Value IE/Windows IE/Mac NN Others  
absolute 4 4 4 all  
fixed 7 5 6 all  
relative 4 4 4 all  
static 4 4 6 all  

The static value is essentially an unpositioned element, one that flows in the normal rendering sequence of the body content. A fixed-position element is positioned relative to the window (viewport), and remains in its specified location even as the content scrolls underneath it.

Initial Value          static

Applies To             All elements.

Object Model Reference



Navigator 4 treats elements that set the CSS position property in the following ways: an absolute-positioned element is turned into the same kind of element as that created as a layer element; a relative-positioned element is turned into the same kind of element as that created as an ilayer element. There are some subtle differences between the actual elements and the simulated version, resulting in more reliable behavior in Navigator 4 when the actual layer and ilayer elements were deployed.

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