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Tagging Support


If you're building an ecommerce website that sells a number of different kinds of goods, you might want to institute tagging. This mainstay of many Internet sites makes it easier to categorize items, and can assist your visitors in finding what they're looking for. This four-part article series shows you how to add tagging support to your site using Ruby on Rails. This article is excerpted from chapter seven of the book Practical Rails Projects, written by Eldon Alameda (Apress; ISBN: 1590597818).

Author Info:
By: Apress Publishing
Rating: 5 stars5 stars5 stars5 stars5 stars / 4
June 08, 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. · Tagging Support
  2. · Getting the Tagging Requirements
  3. · Using the Tagging RubyGem
  4. · Setting Up for Tagging

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Tagging Support - Setting Up for Tagging
(Page 4 of 4 )

As in previous chapters, we will use ActiveRecord migrations to modify the database schema to implement tagging. We will add tables, create a model, and develop unit tests. We’ll also introduce testing with the console.

Updating the Database Schema

When George assigns a set of tags to a book, we must be able to store them somewhere, and also be able to associate them with the book. For this purpose, we will add two new tables to the database schema (see Figure 7-1):

  1. Thetagstable is where the uniqueidandnameof all tags are stored.
  2. Thebooks_tagstable is used to associate a set of tags with one or more books, through a many-to-many relationship (ActiveRecord database relationships are covered in Chapter 3). Thebooks_tagstable includes foreign key references to thetagsandbookstables.


Figure 7-1.  Tables used by the tagging system

Next, create the migration by executing thegeneratecommand:

$ script/generate migration CreateTagsAndBooksTags

--------------------------------------------
  exists db/migrate
  create db/migrate/006_create_tags_and_books_tags.rb
--------------------------------------------

Thegeneratescript creates an empty migration script for you. Next, change the script as shown in Listing 7-1.

Listing 7-1. Migration Script for the Tagging Functionality

class CreateTagsAndBooksTags < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def self.up
    create_table :tags do |table|
      table.column :name, :string, :limit => 255, :null => false, :unique => true
    end

    create_table :books_tags, :id => false do |table|
      table.column :tag_id, :integer, :null => false
      table.column :book_id, :integer, :null => false
    end

    say_with_time 'Adding foreign keys' do
      # Add foreign key reference to books_tags table
      execute 'ALTER TABLE books_tags ADD CONSTRAINT fk_tb_tags➥
FOREIGN KEY ( tag_id ) REFERENCES tags( id ) ON DELETE CASCADE'
     
execute 'ALTER TABLE books_tags ADD CONSTRAINT fk_tb_books➥
FOREIGN KEY ( book_id )
REFERENCES books( id ) ON DELETE CASCADE'
   
end
    say_with_time 'Adding default tags' do
      execute(insert_tags_sql)
    end
  end

  def self.down
    drop_table :books_tags
    drop_table :tags
  end

  def self.insert_tags_sql
   
<<-END_OF_DATA
insert into tags values
(1,"Romance"),
(2,"Cooking"),
(3,"Mystery"),
(4,"History"),
(5,"Politics"),
(6,"Elvis"),
(7,"Science Fiction")
END_OF_DATA
  end
end

The script creates the two tables,tagsandbooks_tags.The migration also adds foreign key references to thebooks andtagstables by executing raw SQL with theexecutecommand. At the end of the migration, the script adds a default set of tags to thetagstable by again calling theexecutecommand.


Note  Thecreate_tablemethod creates anidcolumn by default. When creating thebooks_tagsjoin table, we are telling thecreate_tablecommand not to add anidcolumn by setting theidparameter tofalse.


Now, run the migrations by executing the following command:

rake db:migrate

You should see the command run without errors.


Note  Remember to clone the database structure from the development to the test database by executingrake db:test:clone_structure. You can also perform the migration by executing therakecommand without parameters. This will run the tests and the migrations.


Please check back tomorrow for the second part of this series.


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