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A Close Look at the SQL Query


If you want to get a better understanding of the SQL query, you've come to the right place. This article is excerpted from chapter four of The Art of SQL, written by Stephane Faroult and Peter Robson (O'Reilly; ISBN: 0596008945). Copyright 2006 O'Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission from the publisher. Available from booksellers or direct from O'Reilly Media.

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By: O'Reilly Media
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January 03, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. · A Close Look at the SQL Query
  2. · SQL and the Optimizer
  3. · Limits of the Optimizer
  4. · Five Factors Governing the Art of SQL

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A Close Look at the SQL Query - Limits of the Optimizer
(Page 3 of 4 )

Any decent SQL engine relies heavily on its query optimizer, which very often performs an excellent job. However, there are many aspects of the way optimizers work that you must keep in mind:

Optimizers rely on the information they find in the database.

This information is of two types: general statistical data (which must be verified as being fitting), and the essential declarative information held in the data definitions. Where important semantic information relating to the data relations is embedded in triggers or, worse, in application program code, that vital information will be totally unavailable to the optimizer. Such circumstances will inevitably impact the potential performance of the optimizer.

Optimizers can perform to their best advantage where they can apply transformations that are mathematically proven to be equivalent.

When they are required to assess components of a query that are non-relational in character, they are on less certain grounds and the execution path will stick more closely to what was voluntarily or involuntarily suggested by the original writing.

The work of the optimizer contributes to the overall response time.

Comparing a large number of alternative execution paths may take time. The end user sees only the total elapsed time and is unaware of how much was spent on optimization and how much on execution. A clever optimizer might allow itself more time to try to improve a query that it expects to take a lot of time to run, but there is always a self-imposed limit on its work. The trouble is that when you have a 20-way join (which is by no means unusual in some applications), the number of combinations the optimizer could examine can become unmanageably large even when adequate indexing make some links obvious. Compound this with the inclusion of a combination of complex views and subqueries, and at some point, the optimizer will have to give in. It is quite possible to find a situation in which a query running in isolation of any others may be very well optimized, while the same query deeply nested inside a much more complex outer query may take a completely wrong path.

The optimizer improves individual queries.

It is unable to relate independent queries one to another, however. Whatever its efforts, if the bulk of your program is fetching data inside procedural code just to feed into subsequent queries, the optimizer will not be able to do anything for you.

Feed the optimizer with little chunks, and it will optimize little pieces. Feed it with a big chunk, and it will optimize a task.


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